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tics of the army, and in fact, Mao warned against "extreme democratization" in December 1929. 19

Three Great Disciplines and Eight-Item Caution

According to Chen Shih-chu, 20 Mao established three great disciplines and a six-item caution during the period from the "Sanwan reorganization" in the autumn of 1927 to the union with Wang Tso's unit in the spring of 1928. It was about 1929 that the six-item caution was changed to an eight-item caution. The three great disciplines 21 and the eight-item caution 22 are recognized as the stan- dard of discipline in the present-day people's Liberation Army, too. Of these 11 items, two are for internal regulation, one for handling of prisoners and the re- maining eight for relations with the people.

They appear to be too infantile for army discipline, but among many ar- mies from ancient times, has there been any that has completely observed them? They were a very severe code, but they were absolutely necessary for the weak Red Army to survive among the people.


The Red Army as a liberation army was born in the midst of the northern conquest war as a tool of a new democratic war, developed in civil wars and the anti-Japanese war, and accomplished a new democratic revolution in the Second World War and the subsequent period of confusion. That is, it was born in war, grew up in war, and attained its object by war.

"If power politics is overthrown by power politics, it will result in more power politics. This is not only a self-contradiction, but also ineffective",23 states Mao. An army united with a party and an administrative organization is strong- est among power politics. It follows that in present-day China, there is self- contradiction that fundamentally, power politics has been overthrown by power politics. In order for the Red Army, which was a liberation army to overthrow feudalistic influences and expel imperialism, to become the defense army of a modern State, it seems the army has to not only introduce modern equipment, but also essentially change its nature.



"On a Protracted War" Paragraph 11.


Mao Tse-tung written by Han Suin, translated by Yoko Matsuoka, p. 78.



Marlin and Rizouski


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