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perspective different in important respects from that of the present book. The edited collection by Stuart Plattner (1989) explores economic behavior throughout the whole range of preindustrial societies.  Richard Wilk’s Economies and Cultures (1996) is a very good discussion of important debates on the economic character of preindustrial societies.

Woodburn (1982) provides a valuable treatment of the most essential features of egalitarian societies. Morton Fried’s The Evolution of Political Society (1967) is a classic work on preindustrial social evolution, with special emphasis on the emergence of social stratification and the state. A classic work by Gerhard Lenski, Power and Privilege (1966), is must reading for anyone seriously interested in the evolution of social inequality and stratification. A classic article by Sahlins (1963) is an old but still very useful and insightful discussion of the contrast between tribes and chiefdoms using Melanesian and Polynesian societies as case studies.  Upham (1990) provides valuable essays by specialists on political evolution in its early stages. Timothy Earle’s Chiefdoms: Power, Economy, and Ideology (1991) is an excellent collection of essays on various aspects of chiefdoms, and his How Chiefs Come to Power (1997) is an important recent work on chiefdoms. Patrick Kirch’s The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms (1984) is an extremely thorough archaeological analysis of social and political evolution in Polynesia by a recognized expert. Service (1971) outlines the main stages of preindustrial political evolution.  

Peter Bogucki’s The Origins of Human Society (1999) sketches long-term social evolution from an archaeological perspective. Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) is a widely acclaimed popularized account of many aspects of human social evolution.

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