D Attributable risk
Attributable risk, which can be determined from cohort studies, is a measure of the difference in occurrence of disease between exposed and unexposed populations. The likelihood that a positive result is due to chance is a measure of type I (alpha) error.
Prevalence is the amount of disease existing in a population at a certain point in time.
The odd ratio is a measure of the estimated relative risk occurring due to certain factors. Confounding variables may cause bias in studies.