: A one group pretest-posttest design was used. There was no control group . A better design would be a post test-only control group design in which the experimental group receives instruction in critical thinking and the control group does not. Students should be assigned to experimental and control group randomly. No pretest should be given to control for the testing effect and the interaction between testing and instruction in critical thinking. Thus this design will control for all threats to validity or sources of bias.
Although the samples were small, the study gives much support to the statement that critical thinking is taught in general psychology classes and that it is possible to measure the efficacy of the instruction.
The Psychology faculty need to determine what grade level on the exam indicates an acceptable level of knowledge of critical thinking.
Other courses will considered for inclusion in the critical thinking measure. The idea situation would be to teach and assess this construct across the curriculum. New year (05-06) several other courses will be added to the assessment of critical thinking. Two of those courses are English 112 and Communications 231.