thesis delimits organizations that do not contribute general WMD defense capabilities. In
addition, it does not review missions or capabilities of organizations which specialize in
one specific area of the WMD threat or provide its capabilities on a regional basis only.
Several doctrinal terms and non-doctrinal, but often used, references have evolved
in the debate over WMD recently. In an attempt to better grasp their collective meaning
several of the most common terms in this area are defined below.
Civil Defense. All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to: a.
minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an
enemy attack on the United States; b. deal with the immediate
emergency conditions which would be created by any such attack; and c. effectuate
emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities
destroyed or damaged by any such attack.4
Combatting Terrorism. Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures
taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures
taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout
the entire threat spectrum.5
Consequence Management (CM). Measures to protect public health, safety, and
the environment, to restore essential government services, and to provide emergency
relief to governments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of