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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Since the War of 1812 the continental United States has been relatively immune from the bloody consequences and physical destruction of conflict. As a result, the concept of homeland defense has been generally absent from American thinking. Recently, however, the issue of conflict and possible catastrophic consequences for the United States and its population is emerging in opinion polls as an important public concern. 1

Dr. Max G. Manwaring, Domestic Tranquility and Common Defense ROA National Security Report, August 2000

Introduction

There has been a significant amount of official and unofficial literature on the

WMD threat and NBC defense in general. This is especially true during the past decade

following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Communism’s collapse resulted in the loss of

a global threat that could be conventionally measured and articulated. The Defense

Department, in its ever-changing environment, reacted to the new world order by

converting to a two nearly simultaneous major theaters of war (MTW) strategy. This is

the strategy that exists today--and this is the strategy DoD is organizationally structured

and sized to execute today.2

However, much of the recent emerging threat discussion focuses on a WMD

threat to America itself. In fact, many government leaders no longer suggest a WMD

attack on the US may happen, rather they emphasize the assumption that it will happen.3

And, the effects of WMD attacks on the homeland may be more devastating than the

MTWs themselves. Consider then Secretary Cohen’s remarks to the Center for Strategic

and International Studies, “If you take a five-pound bag of sugar and you say, assuming

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