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nations or terrorist groups) that choose to attack us will be more likely to resort to asymmetric attack instead of conventional military assault. Moreover, easier access to sophisticated technology means that the destructive power available to terrorists is greater than ever. Adversaries may be tempted to use unconventional tools, such as WMD, to target our cities and disrupt the operations of our government. 9

Research on the threat also indicates that these weapons pose significant problems

for the military in carrying out their conventional missions. While the burdens of

enhanced protective posture is not new to the military, the increased threat of WMD

terrorism to logistics bases and deployment platforms causes difficulty for planners who

must still meet tactical requirements. A recent conclusion by a panel of congressmen,

senior military leaders, and other credible public policy makers pointed out that, “New

elements in warfare such as information systems, space operations, and weapons of mass

destruction are likely to increase the problems inherent in planning and preparing for

future conflicts.”10

The reasons they came to that conclusion likely include the current difficulty in

detection of certain WMD agents. For example, current technology against biological

agents fielded within DoD primarily enables its forces the ability to detect in order to

treat (detect-to-treat) the patients infected and also to identify the hazard in order to

mitigate losses. Still mostly on the drawing board is a detect in order to warn (detect-to-

warn) personnel capability. A detect-to-warn system or set of systems would increase the

probability US forces could assume protective posture or avoid the contamination

altogether. This capability would thereby eliminate, or at least minimize, losses from a

biological agent release. Although some standoff detection systems are being fielded, the


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