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complicates that US measurement. Additionally, the idea that adversaries are more likely

to use WMD and asymmetric attack against the US than conventional assaults adds to the

concern. But, before one can determine what to do about it, an assessment of what

currently exists must be done. Many have done that assessment. So, there is also an

abundance of researchable materiel in that regard.

Current DoD Structure and Capabilities Literature

Traditionally, DoD’s role in the defense of the homeland has been limited by law.

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the most prominent and direct threat to the US

homeland has been by way of international terrorism. The most dangerous form of this

terrorism is the use of relatively easily acquirable and increasingly deliverable WMD.

Unfortunately, DoD has not been at the forefront of the response to this threat despite its

expertise in NBC defense. This is potentially due to legal restrictions and a

misperception of executive agency responsibilities. In 1995, Presidential Decision

Directive 39 (US Policy on Counterterrorism) designated the Federal Bureau of

Investigation (FBI) as the “lead federal agency for the management of all terrorist crises,

including those involving NBC weapons, that occur in the United States.”16

In addition, some military experts seem to question the basic organizational

structure of the Defense Department itself. In a postretirement article in Proceedings

magazine entitled “A Commander Reflects,” the former Commander in Chief of the US

Central Command, General (Retired) Anthony Z. Zinni opinioned, “The National

Security Act of 1947 set up the most dysfunctional, worst organizational approach to

military affairs one can possibly imagine. In a near-perfect example of the Law of

Unintended Consequences, it created a situation in which the biggest rival of any US 25

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