complicates that US measurement. Additionally, the idea that adversaries are more likely
to use WMD and asymmetric attack against the US than conventional assaults adds to the
concern. But, before one can determine what to do about it, an assessment of what
currently exists must be done. Many have done that assessment. So, there is also an
abundance of researchable materiel in that regard.
Current DoD Structure and Capabilities Literature
Traditionally, DoD’s role in the defense of the homeland has been limited by law.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the most prominent and direct threat to the US
homeland has been by way of international terrorism. The most dangerous form of this
terrorism is the use of relatively easily acquirable and increasingly deliverable WMD.
Unfortunately, DoD has not been at the forefront of the response to this threat despite its
expertise in NBC defense. This is potentially due to legal restrictions and a
misperception of executive agency responsibilities. In 1995, Presidential Decision
Directive 39 (US Policy on Counterterrorism) designated the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) as the “lead federal agency for the management of all terrorist crises,
including those involving NBC weapons, that occur in the United States.”16
In addition, some military experts seem to question the basic organizational
structure of the Defense Department itself. In a postretirement article in Proceedings
magazine entitled “A Commander Reflects,” the former Commander in Chief of the US
Central Command, General (Retired) Anthony Z. Zinni opinioned, “The National
Security Act of 1947 set up the most dysfunctional, worst organizational approach to
military affairs one can possibly imagine. In a near-perfect example of the Law of
Unintended Consequences, it created a situation in which the biggest rival of any US 25