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armed service is not a foreign adversary but one of its sister services.”17 Although

General (Retired) Zinni did not provide any solutions he did seem to imply that a more

optimal structure is more joint service oriented. He seemed to argue that service

competitiveness effectively ties the hands of the war-fighting CINC in their efforts to

defend US interests in their area of responsibility (AOR). He continued by discussing the

lack of attention DoD had paid to preparing for WMD attacks. “On his watch,” he said,

“my son is likely to see a weapons of mass destruction event. Another Pearl Harbor will

occur somewhere in the world where Americans are gathered, when a nasty bug or gas or

nuke is released that will forever change him and his institutions. At that point, all the lip

service paid to deal with such an eventuality will be revealed for what it is--lip service.

And he will have to deal with it for real.”18

Although General (Retired) Zinni has not been impressed with the department’s

efforts, there has been some tangible jointness added specifically in the area of NBC

defense. The Defense Department’s annual Chemical and Biological (CB) Defense

Report to Congress points out the fact that all CB defense programs are by law integrated

across service lines. The report states, “The National Defense Authorization Act for

Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law No. 103-160, Section 1703 (50 USC 1522), mandates the

coordination and integration of all Department of Defense chemical and biological (CB)

defense programs.”19 One result of that law was the creation within DoD of a singular

office charged with overseeing research, development, and acquisition (RDA) of all CB

defense items intended for the services. This office, the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary

of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense (DASD-CBD), provides the civilian

oversight to the process. To assist in complying with the law, the services established the


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