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to guard against the threat of terrorist or cyber attack.” He stresses that no

comprehensive policy to protect the country currently exists and hints that the Pentagon

should spearhead the effort. Cohen argued, “the Defense Department is the only

institution in the country that has the organizational and logistic capability to respond to

such an attack.” He went on to indicate that, “we have yet to begin the debate on

homeland defense.” “I believe,” he said, “that we as a democratic society have yet to

come to grips with the tension that exists between constitutional protection of the right to

privacy [and] the demand that we made. . . . to protect us.” Later, he gives credit to the

Pentagon’s military leadership for developing the idea of a CINC Homeland Defense.

Cohen pointed out that the requirements needed for protecting the US and her interests

are, “one reason why the Joint Chiefs started to talk about a [commander-in-chief] for

homeland defense.” “Because if you think about it in terms of terrorism coming to U.S.

soil,” he said, “the prospects are that you will see multiple attacks that will occur nearly


Defense Organizations

One of the primary means of addressing emerging threats is through changes in

organizational structure. “The services must continue to foster a culture of innovation by

constantly reassessing current thinking, structures, and doctrines,” concluded a recent

panel of defense experts at the Fletcher conference.6 And so, the defense structure is

seemingly in a continual period of refinement. However, what appears to be important is

whether these changes follow a particular strategic direction or set of goals. The

following is a review of several defense organizations, some new, some considerably


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