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emergency response. . . . to ensure appropriate coordination of Federal response activities

in support of State and local authorities.”39 This federal agency would leverage its

significant disaster relieve experience and capabilities in the event of a WMD incident. It

is adept at coordinating the required relieve with state and local officials. The FEMA, by

virtue of its natural disaster relief missions, already has much of the support structure and

connectivity that would be required for a WMD incident.

The FEMA also coordinates pre-deployment consequence management activities

if the threat warrants and the FBI requests a consequence management advance

presence.40 These activities would include various military units such as the TEU,

CBIRF, and WMD-CSTs listed above. Therefore, like the FBI, FEMA requires close

coordination with DoD organizations.

State and Local Governments

State governments normally utilize their emergency management divisions as

their mechanism to prepare, respond, mitigate, and recover from natural disasters and

emergencies. Likewise, state emergency management officials, at the direction of the

Governor, normally coordinate all the state assets in the case of WMD events. State

assets include the state police and various national guard units. Additionally, the states

coordinate numerous inter and intra State agreements and memoranda of understanding

for mutual support.41

Local governments follow the same parallel as state governments on a smaller

scale. Local leaders such as city mayors and county commissioners use their emergency

management personnel to develop plans and programs responsive to local disasters.


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