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responsible for integrating all of DoD’s WMD related efforts. Each area is handled

piecemeal with no overall integration and coordination of purpose. The recent Hart-

Rudman commission came to a similar conclusion in their recent phase III report. Only,

the highly regarded commission went a step further in terms of why it is necessary to

unite DoD’s efforts. They found that DoD’s organizational responses are so, “widely

dispersed” that such arrangements do not “provide clear lines of authority and

responsibility or ensure political accountability.”10

Conclusion Six

The emerging nature of the WMD threat, the complexities involved in addressing

it and the probability that it will occur against civilian targets in the US, require an

enormous degree of unity of effort and inter-governmental integration.

Supporting Discussion

The fundamental threat to American life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness has

changed like no other time in history. The Defense Department, if it is to live up to its

name and historical purpose of preserving those ideals, must lead the way in providing

the strategic direction to stay in front of that threat. To do this, it must transform its

strategic organizational structure as well as its forces. At least one panel of national

security experts agreed that, “the growing threat of chemical and biological weapons will

force a transformation in the Armed Forces.” They concluded that threat of WMD to the

nation will also, “put greater emphasis on increased cooperation between DoD and other

governmental agencies.”11 Another panel of experts felt that these “new elements in

warfare,” elements including WMD, are “likely to increase the problems inherent in


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