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Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive: Organic Compounds - page 4 / 4

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V. Given the following substances:

O2, Na+, Cl-, amino acids, glucose, CO2, K+, H2O, and steroids 1. Which 3 substances can easily move by simple diffusion across lipid-containing cell membranes? __________________________________________ 2. Which of the remaining substances cannot dissolve into lipid and thus must enter or leave the cell by protein-

based carriers or pores? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Which one substance is able to move passively across the membrane by diffusion through aquaporin

channels or pores?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. Which 2 of the substances are also known to be transported across the membrane by a primary active

transport mechanism? _______________________________________________________ 5. Identify the one substance that is known to be transported along with sodium via a secondary active transport mechanism __________________.

VI. Figure 2 shows three microscope fields containing red blood cells. Arrows indicate the direction of net osmosis. Respond to the questions below.

A

B

Figure 2 1. Identify the osmolarity of the fluid surrounding the cells in A, B, and C.

A.

___________________________B.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

C.

____________________________

2. Describe what is happening to the cells in diagrams A, B, and C.

A.

___________________________B.

____________________________

C.

____________________________

3. What does hyperosmotic mean in terms of solute & H2O concentration?

4. Why is the cell in diagram C bursting?

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