Argument: A series of points that advocate something.
Point: A statement or a proposition.
Premise: A preliminary point that justifies a conclusion; often there are a series of these leading logically from one to another.
Conclusion: The final point that claims to be true because of the premises.
Deductive (‐tion): An argument where the premises logically prove the conclusion. To say the conclusion didnʹt follow from the premises would be nonsense.
Entail (‐ment): Premises in a deductive argument are said to ʺentailʺ the conclusion because the conclusion is a logical and necessary consequence of the premises
Inductive (‐tion): An argument where the premises only suggest or support the conclusion without absolutely proving it. The conclusion may be very likely but is not logically inescapable.
Infer (‐ence): Mental activity in which a reader extrapolates from premises to a conclusion, making a logical leap; usually inferences are based on probability: ʺonly one airplane in 10,000 crashes, so itʹs safe for me to fly today.ʺ Inferences can be strong (that is, very likely) or weak (not so likely).
Fallacy: An illogical or unreliable argument; see ʺ10 Common Errors of Logic in Argumentative Writing.ʺ
Syllogism: A 3‐part argument with a major premise and a minor premise leading to a conclusion