1. 30 Classroom Techniques That Encourage Critical Thinking
Adapted from The Miniature Guide for Those Who Teach on Practical Ways to Promote Active & Cooperative Learning by Wesley Hiler and Richard Paul (Sonoma State Univ.: Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2002) and Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History by Kathleen W. Craver (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1999)
Start classes with a question: set up anticipation before class begins.
Assign questions for them to answer about their reading: ʺexplain why and
Give a 5‐minute quiz at the start of class (keeps students engaged).
Use charts and graphics (visual learners abound).
Have them play roles: give a speech as if they were the author of the document.
Have them identify premises, assumptions and conclusions in todayʹs
7. Have them evaluate reasoning, evidence, and completeness in todayʹs newspaper.
Use index cards to call on all students randomly.
Make students figure things out in class (combine them into small groups to
Interview each other and restate the other personʹs views to the class.
Talk less; give them time to think about what youʹve said .
Model critical thinking: think aloud on your feet in front of them.
Use Socratic questioning: ʺWhat precisely do you mean?ʺ ʺHow do you
know?ʺ ʺWhat is your reason?ʺ ʺWhat else has to be true for that to be so?ʺ etc.
Promote collaboration: have small groups solve problems and adopt positions.
Use pyramid teaching: discuss in pairs, then small groups, then larger groups.