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King, Alison. ʺInquiry as a Tool in Critical Thinking.ʺ In D. Halpern and Associates, eds. Changing College Classrooms: New Teaching and Learning Strategies for an Increasingly

Complex World , pp. 1338. San Francisco: JosseyBass, 1994. Author fervently believes that CT can empower students. A proponent of the constructivist educational model, King stresses the importance of asking students to draw on previous experience(s) and knowledge when introduced to new information. She advocates that college professors need to depart from the traditional lecture model in order for their students to develop CT skills, promoting an application of “Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning” based on Bloom’s taxonomy (application, analysis, evaluation) as fundamental to CT instruction.

McMillan, J.H. “Enhancing College Students’ Critical Thinking: A Review of Studies,”

Research in Higher Education 26:1 (1987): 329 (ERIC EJ 354 319). An early exhaustive summary of higher education studies of undergraduate students’ CT skills. Has since been expanded upon, by Lisa Tsui (see below).

Milbury, Peter and Brett Silva. “ProblemBased Learning, Primary Sources, and

Information Literacy,” Multimedia Schools 5 (Sept.Oct. 1998): 4044 (ERIC EJ 574 027). Authors describe their interdisciplinary collaboration to employ the instructional strategy, ProblemBased Learning (PBL), to develop and teach original lesson plans with the Library of Congress’s American Memory Project.

Norris, S.P. “Synthesis of Research on Critical Thinking,” Educational Leadership 42:8

(1985): 4045 (ERIC EJ 319 814). An early summary of research and philosophy underlying CT education. Author makes the following points: 1) CT is a complex of many considerations; 2) CT is an educational ideal; 3) CT ability is not widespread; 4) CT is sensitive to context; 5) teachers should look for the reasoning behind students’ conclusions; 6) simple errors may signal errors in thinking at a deeper level; 7) having a critical spirit is as important as thinking critically; 8) to think critically, one must have knowledge; and 9) we don’t know a great deal about the effects of teaching CT.

O’Connor, John E. “Reading, Writing, and Critical Viewing: Coordinating Skill Development in History Learning,” The History Teacher (Long Beach, CA) 34:2 (Fall

2001): 183192 (ERIC EJ 665 387). Autobiographical summary of his approach (developed over 30 years as a high school teacher) to integrate film and television viewing in history instruction. He supports analysis of these media based on historical methodologies (as “documents”), since they are representations of history; evidence for historical fact; evidence for social and cultural history; and evidence for the history of film and television.


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