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Walters, Kerry S., ed. ReThinking Reason: New Perspectives on Critical Thinking.

Albany: SUNY Press, 1994. Extremely valuable fourteenarticle anthology presenting the “second wave” of critical thinking research and pedagogy, claiming that teachers and researchers need to expand their criteria of what should be considered critical thinking. Authors challenge premises traditionally associated with institutionally driven perspectives on CT, and emphasize such skills and dispositions as nonanalytical thinking, including imagination and intuition.

Wineburg, S.S. “Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Processes Used in the Evaluation of Documentary and Pictorial Evidence,” Journal of Educational

Psychology 83:1 (1991): 7387 (ERIC EJ 436 869). Article based on the author’s doctoral dissertation from the School of Education at Stanford University. Addresses the complexities of assessing historical understanding/inquiry. Conducted a research study with participants gleaned from universities and high schools (eight historians and eight high school students). Wineburg attempted to address how historical “facts” are developed.

ZeislerVralsted, Dorothy. “The Wisconsin Collaborative United States History Professional Development Program,” The History Teacher (Long Beach, CA) 36:2 (Fall

2003): 221230. Discusses the Wisconsin Collaborative United States History Professional Development Program, which received a Teaching American History (TAH) grant, in an effort to improve subject knowledge for state K—16 teachers. Led by the National Council for History Education (NCHE)’s masterteacher, Betty Franks, the program further sought to improve critical thinking skills. The author reviews the program’s firstyear colloquia, its overall successes and shortcomings.


Ennis, Robert H. and Eric Weir. The EnnisWeir Critical Thinking Essay Test: An

Instrument for Teaching and Testing. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications, 1985. Presentation of the “EnnisWeir,” Robert Ennis and Eric Weir’s general test of critical thinking ability. The test ‐‐ which takes the form of a letter to the editor of a fictional newspaper ‐‐ was intended to evaluate the testtaker’s ability to appraise an argument and to formulate a written response, similar in conception to the new SAT essay section.

Facione, Peter and Noreen C. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory.

Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications, 1985. Standardized text for CT, developed upon the completion of a twoyear Delphi project with the sponsorship of the American Philosophical Association. The California Critical Thinking Disposition (CCTDI) was intended to assess only the affective, attitudinal dimensions of CT: things such as opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards CT. May be useful for preand postassessments.


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