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shreds often can lead to prolonged life of roads, and the implementation is usually

very cost effective (Clark, Meardon, & Russell, 1993).

Crumb Rubber

The tyre shreds can be processed to even finer levels. This product, called

crumb rubber, is almost entirely devoid of contaminant wire and material.

Unfortunately the methods for producing crumb rubber are complex and expensive.

One method is to cryogenically freeze the rubber shreds and mechanically pound

them to break them into finer pieces, removing the fibers and metal wire thereafter

(Brown, 2002). Other methods exist for creating crumb rubber without the need for

cryogenic temperatures, but it is unknown if these are cost effective (Anthony, 1999).

This rubber product can be processed into such items as shoe soles, industrial mats,

and playground tiles (Steuteville, 1995).

2.2.2 Uses for Whole Tyres

Tyres do not need to be shredded to find use. Whole tyres have found a variety

of uses in civil engineering projects as well (Hylands & Shulman, 2003). When

strategically placed on hillsides or beaches, tyres can help fight erosion. Though

unsightly, it may be the best option for areas with little capital to spend processing the

tyres. Boats can use tyres as bumpers. A stack of tyres covered in fiberglass has been

found to make an effective highway barrier as well (Clark, Meardon, & Russell,


If tyres are linked together and placed on the ocean floor they can form an

artificial reef (Rowe, 2002). In the past, artificial reef projects using waste tyres were

prone to problems of tyres washing ashore in large numbers. This is often either due

to strong ocean currents or poor reef construction. Care must be taken to ensure the

binding material that holds the tyres can withstand the salty ocean environment;


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