the past decade. The Community Waste Strategy (CWS) of July 2006 promotes the
prevention, recovery, and minimization of the disposal of waste (European Tyre and
Rubber Manufacturers' Association, 2006a). The CWS also enacts a mandatory take-
back of all “end-of-life” products to the producer. The CWS also covers restrictions
on the shipment of waste. Waste tyres are not considered hazardous but can still be
taxed on import and export.
Another key document is the “Directive on the Landfill of Waste” of April
1999. The legislation enacted by this document effectively bans all waste tyres from
the landfills (European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers' Association, 2006a). Whole
tyres were banned on July 16, 2003, while all shreds were banned on July 16, 2006.
Any waste tyre product used in the engineering of the landfill is exempt from these
laws (European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers' Association, 2006a).
Like the United States the EU has lenient emissions requirements and waste
tyres are burned for fuel. In 2004, 31% of all waste tyres were burned, up from 14%
in 1992 (European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturers' Association, 2006c). This
happens despite costly modification to the cement kilns required to burn the tyres.
Hong Kong is a very special case because of its unique history as a center of
commerce, and it is still transitioning from being a British colony to being an integral
part of China. Despite the difficulties in making the transition Hong Kong has passed
and enforced some laws that govern environmental issues. The government imposes a
tax on exported waste, with the exception of waste that is going to be recycled