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Cisco Systems (U.S.)

Ericsson (Sweden)

Lucent Technologies (U.S.)

Nortel Networks (Canada)

Nippon Telegraph and

Nokia (Finland)

Alcatel (France)

Matsushita Communicati on (Japan)

1997 2,002 2003

21.4 18.57

12.5 20.1 20.12

11.5 16.5 18.75

13.9 18.7 20.45

7 3.3 3.63

9.6 10.17

8.2 11.3 13.45

19.2 19.23

10

5

0

R&D Intensity of Leading World Telecommunications Manufacturers

25

20

R&D Intensity (%)

15

Sunil Mani, UNU-INTECH, ITU Geneva, April 14 2004

6

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