Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education
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experience cutbacks from economic depressions or political instabilities before other subjects. However, the development of culture and cultural education are not always directly related to economic prosperity and political stability. Thus, again, this discussion should not be generalized to all nations without consideration of the pragmatic issues.
Significance of Government Policies Government policies have a significant impact in the development of education in music. Education policy is the ‘inside factor’ that has a direct impact on the role of music in general education. Cultural and mass media policies are ‘outside factors’ that have a major impact on the social status of music and, thus, on the role of music in education. The original study identified education policy as one of the major influences for stimulating and promoting the development of education in music. Among all other policies, education policy is the pre-eminent source of influence due to its direct effect on education. With respect to the overall school curriculum, there is a need for a balance between academic and non-academic achievement in order that non-academic subjects like music are treated equally alongside academic subjects. The interviewees also stressed that cultural and non-academic subjects must be appropriately recognized in the curriculum if the status of music within the programme is to be raised. This may entail increasing the time given to music within the curriculum and, at the same time, ensuring that music is taught at all levels of schooling. Nevertheless, and importantly, a balance among musics has to be maintained in the curriculum regardless of the time available to music.
A cultural policy that recognizes music through performance, composition, and media broadcasts is crucial if it is to achieve the status in society that music deserves. Such a policy, further, should be developed for the long-term and should identify specific targets. With regard to media policy, it was suggested by interviewees that the market-oriented nature of the mass media and the issue of freedom of the press could inhibit the development and enforcement of an explicit policy emphasizing music and its education. Six operations are proposed for an effective implementation of the
MMC model. They are: (1) The
establishment of a long-term policy
Leung, C. (2004). Building a New Music Curriculum: A Multi-faceted approach. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education. Vol.3, #2 (July 2004). http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Leung3_2.pdf