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Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education

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in designing and implementing a curriculum in order to strike a pragmatic balance among them in consideration of the particular circumstances, needs, and criteria of a local situation or particular nation. However, the model advanced would not be a model for actually writing a curriculum. Rather, it offers a comprehensive approach for conceptualizing curricular decision-making and for guiding individual teachers, groups of teachers in a particular school, or bureaucrats in an education ministry to consider the variables of all four dimensions and to clarify the direction of their thinking before proceeding to write their curriculum according to the particular needs and protocols of their school, district or region.

The penultimate section of the paper discusses the interplay of variables that affect successful implementation of the MMC Model with regard to education, policies, and culture. The discussion focuses on the impact of education at different levels, and underscores that the implementation of the model needs to address pragmatic issues in society from many different perspectives.

A Multi-faceted Music curriculum model The MMC Model, which constitutes a comprehensive view in projecting an effective music curriculum, could be applied to different levels of music education for policy makers, educators, and music teachers to take into consideration as a curriculum guide, for future music teachers as part of their music programmes, or for school students as their music programmes. The four dimensions proposed are combined in a cube-shaped model (Figure 1). They are:

  • popularization, traditionalization, and contemporization of music (on the left of the cube);

  • localization, nationalization, and globalization of music (at the bottom);

  • embedding considerations of aesthetics (i.e., questions of art theory, ‘beauty’, taste, etc.), music theory, history, and philosophy within composition, appreciation, and performance (on the top); and

  • integrating elements of culture in the teaching of music (on the right side).

Though a curriculum model, it stresses

the vitality of processes rather than just

Leung, C. (2004). Building a New Music Curriculum: A Multi-faceted approach. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education. Vol.3, #2 (July 2004). http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Leung3_2.pdf

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