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Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education

Page 9 of 28

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world. For this reason, some use the term “glocalization” to signify the importance of localization in the process of globalization. Second, the study of music in comparison with musics around the world does not mean study from the perspective of music at the local or national levels but, rather, study that identifies uniqueness and thus enhances understanding of different musics.

The above dimension is based on the results of the original study, which found that music teachers in Hong Kong considered local Chinese music, such as Guangdong music (agreed to by 91.7% of the music teachers), as most pertinent to teach in the music curriculum. This reveals that these music teachers considered local context to be of vital importance in the selection of teaching content. In addition, some of the interviewees pinpoint the importance of introducing the works written by local composers while others emphasize the use of Cantopop to teach music. Following the importance of local music is music widely known in China, for example Jiangnan sizhu (66.9%) and Beijing opera (70.3%), which were not initially developed locally or were not familiar to most of the Cantonese in Hong Kong. This music is thus considered to be at the national level of recognition. In addition, interviewees point out that there are many musics around the world, including Western classical music, jazz, and world musics, that students would benefit from understanding. In other words, they recommend that musics from other parts of the world should be emphasized equally if students are to have a balanced-understanding of local, national, and world musics.

Leung (2003c) points out that in many countries in Asia classical music endangers the existence of local traditional music. Erlmann (1998) highlights the fragility of local culture under globalization (that is, global uniformity), and Desroches’s (1996) study of French pop articulates that the current trend towards globalization (understood as previously mentioned) should emphasize cultural identity. Helms (2000) advises the need to preserve variety against the homogenizing effects of Europeanization. In other words, the preservation of national or regional cultural identities has to be guaranteed in the process of change. According to Vaughan Williams (1999), “all great music has grown from and speaks to the culture

from which its composers arose. Only

music that is nationalistic in this sense

Leung, C. (2004). Building a New Music Curriculum: A Multi-faceted approach. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education. Vol.3, #2 (July 2004). http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Leung3_2.pdf

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