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Unfortunately, there are quite a few obstacles in enacting these procedures, programs, and practices.  Some governments suffer from a ‘denial syndrome.’  They may also have non-existent or poor legislation and weak policy enforcement.  The 5 Cs that prohibit effective anti-trafficking procedures are: corruption, collusion, cronyism, consumers and crime.  Social factors, such as low salaries, poor education/curriculum development, and civil sector intimidation may also hamper proper enforcement.  Governments must encourage a vigilant civil society, volunteers, community involvement, NGO intervention and media focus to properly combat trafficking.

Where are these resources coming from?  It is important to compare military and social fiscal budgets to ensure an equitable allocation of resources from the government sector.  The inclusion of non-economic resources or “volunteer” resources from community participation and individual volunteerism may also provide resources.  In terms of monitoring, there is a division between the global, regional and national levels.  At the global level, NGOs (ECPAT) and the UN, with its special rapporteurs and committees, provide an externalized view of local or regional action.  At the regional and national levels, government forces, NGOs, sentinel surveillance, data collection and mapping and survey all impact anti-trafficking reform.  Certain disturbing factors remain unaddressed or poorly challenged, including the building of qualified law enforcement and the reduction or change in demand (clients or consumers of trafficked labor).

Included below are excepts from some of the many well-qualified experts who shared their knowledge and experience.

Asian Development Bank, lessons and past experience

The representatives of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) emphasized the need to design a broader development agenda in internal and external policies based on experiences they have had.  They stressed the inclusion of prevention of trafficking in persons clauses, especially women and children, in most if not all projects related to poverty reduction, gender inequalities, social protection to groups vulnerable to trafficking and regional cooperation dialogue.

Objectives:  The objectives of RETA in South Asia (Bangladesh, India and Nepal) were to better understand the nature and underlying causes of trafficking in women and children, and to identify how the ADB can contribute to addressing anti-trafficking concerns through its country programs and regional policy dialogue.  The objectives were achieved through current debates concerning the concept and modalities of human trafficking, the nature and extent of trafficking in South Asia and key factors that contribute to vulnerabilities conducive to trafficking (economic poverty and gender). The findings confirmed that poverty and human deprivation are important factors in the popularity of trafficking of persons.

Recommendations:  The ADB recommended public awareness campaigns, increased local government capacity in known source areas and continued partnership with NGOs.  They also recommended strengthening the support services that encourage the economic and social empowerment of

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