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1.  Introduction:  Why Environment Matters, cont.

as music, the media, crime and socioeconomic conditions (e.g.., “stressful environments”), which contribute to the child’s socialization and choice of behaviors.  (DiClemente, et al. 2003:370-372)

Life Domains

Prevention professionals employ and encourage science-based prevention programs, policies and strategies that promote and support a drug-free lifestyle. (Kumpfer 1996, 1998;  Webster-Stratton 1998)  The norms associated with the domains in which the child grows and develops are a major object of their concern. (Webster-Stratton 1998; Thornton 2000;  Oetting 1997; Chou 1998

The National Institutes of Health have identified a major protective and risk factor for each of five domains  (NIDA 2003:6) or spheres of influence in which children live and develop.   The risk factors can be viewed as absence of a protective factor, the consequence of that absence, or as part of a more complex scenario involving additional mitigating conditions.   Where a child’s environment includes multiple risk factors, the situation becomes increasingly dangerous.

DomainProtective FactorRisk Factor

IndividualImpulse ControlAggressive Behavior

FamilyParental MonitoringLack of Parental Monitoring

School             Anti-Use PoliciesDrug Availability

PeerAcademic CompetenceSubstance Use

CommunityNeighborhood AttachmentPoverty

Similarly, in this County Profile, a single variable may indicate either risk or protection, depending on the county’s or block group’s score for that particular variable, e.g., variables showing various forms of assets versus deprivations.      

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