1. Introduction: Why Environment Matters, cont.
as music, the media, crime and socioeconomic conditions (e.g.., “stressful environments”), which contribute to the child’s socialization and choice of behaviors. (DiClemente, et al. 2003:370-372)
Prevention professionals employ and encourage science-based prevention programs, policies and strategies that promote and support a drug-free lifestyle. (Kumpfer 1996, 1998; Webster-Stratton 1998) The norms associated with the domains in which the child grows and develops are a major object of their concern. (Webster-Stratton 1998; Thornton 2000; Oetting 1997; Chou 1998
The National Institutes of Health have identified a major protective and risk factor for each of five domains (NIDA 2003:6) or spheres of influence in which children live and develop. The risk factors can be viewed as absence of a protective factor, the consequence of that absence, or as part of a more complex scenario involving additional mitigating conditions. Where a child’s environment includes multiple risk factors, the situation becomes increasingly dangerous.
IndividualImpulse ControlAggressive Behavior
FamilyParental MonitoringLack of Parental Monitoring
School Anti-Use PoliciesDrug Availability
PeerAcademic CompetenceSubstance Use
Similarly, in this County Profile, a single variable may indicate either risk or protection, depending on the county’s or block group’s score for that particular variable, e.g., variables showing various forms of assets versus deprivations.