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disconnected from the ecological and hydrological processes that sustain their well-being. In this perspective farmers are the stewards of the landscape in which cities lie. is pro- vides a new challenge for water and ecosystem management.

One of the main gaps in our scientific understanding of ecosystems and ecosystem services is where the thresholds lie and how far a system can be changed before it loses too many essential functions and totally changes its behavior (Gunderson and Holling 2002). Without this knowledge the early warning indicators required to provide advance warn- ing of anticipated adverse change or of when a threshold is being approached cannot be developed.

  • gure 6.4

Comparison of intensive agricultural systems managed for the generation of one ecosystem service and multifunctionality in agroecosystems

Provisioning services

Regulating services

Supporting services

Cultural services

Natural ecosystem

Intensive cropland

Crop production

Crop production

Recreation

Fuel wood

Recreation

Fuel wood

Nutrient cycling

Regulation of water balance

Nutrient cycling

Regulation of water balance

Soil

Pest

Soil

Pest

formation

control

formation

control

Climate regulation

Climate regulation

Multifunctionality in rice elds

Alder-cardamom system

Rice production

Commercial timber and fuel wood

Religious land- scape values

Fish

Fertility transfer to other systems

Cardamom seed

Biodiversity enhancement in human- dominated landscapes

Climate air temperature

Prevention of soil erosion

Ducks, frogs, snails

Water storage, lowering of peak oods, groundwater recharge

Soil conservation

Watershed conservation

Fodder for livestock

Soil fertility improvement

Nitrogen

  • xation

Source: Adapted from Foley and others 2005; chapters 14 and 15 in this volume.

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