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A catchment-based and integrated approach to land use, water, and ecosystems will be essential for a knowledge-based balancing of water among different ecological processes and the provision of ecosystem services. It will be necessary to develop the scientific and administrative capability and capacity to analyze the conditions necessary for securing social and ecological resilience to change in ecosystems, including in those that are par- ticularly vulnerable to large or episodic events, such as drought, storms, and floods, and those that are subject to multiple and cumulative impacts. Climate change raises questions about how the future use of water and land for agriculture will constrain the ability of eco- systems to respond. at is, will water and land uses adversely affect ecosystem resilience and responses to climate change?

We are dependent on the ecological components and processes and ecosystem servic- es that provide or support much of our food. us a more cautious approach toward water management and food production will be essential to ensure social and ecological sustain- ability. While food production will continue to be at the forefront of our endeavors to support human well-being, sustainability can be achieved only through a more conscious striking of tradeoffs between different interests. Underlying all must be a clear understand- ing of the vital role that ecosystems and ecosystem services play in supporting human well- being and the recognition that much past ecological change has undermined the provision of many vital ecosystem services, often with complex social and economic inequities.

Reviewers

Chapter review editor: Rebecca D’Cruz. Chapter reviewers: Maria Angelica Algeria, Andrew I. Ayeni, Donald Baird, orsten Blenckner, Stuart Bunn, Zhu Defeng, Rafiqul M. Islam, Ramaswamy R. Iyer, Mostafa Jafari, Joan Jaganyi, Hillary Masundhire, Randy Milton, A.D. Mohile, Jorge Mora Portuguez, V.J. Paranjpye, Bernt Rydgren, Marcel Silvius, Elizabeth Soderstrom, Douglas Taylor, and Yunpeng Xue.

References

Acreman, M.C., and J.M. King. 2003. “Defining Water Requirements.” In M. Dyson, G. Bergkamp, and J. Scanlon, eds., Flow: e Essentials of Environmental Flows. Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Union. Adams, W.M., R. Aveling, D. Brockington, B. Dickson, J. Elliott, J. Hutton, D. Roe, B. Vira, and W. Wolmer. 2004. “Biodiversity Conservation and the Eradication of Poverty.” Science 306 (5699): 1146–49. Agardy, T., and J. Alder. 2005. “Coastal Systems.” In Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Vol. 1, Ecosystems and Human ell- being: Current State and rends. Findings of the Conditions and rends orking Group. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Alam, M., and W. Kabir. 2004. “Irrigated Agriculture in Bangladesh and Possible Impact Due to Inter-Basin Water Transfer as Planned by India.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 1–4 August, Ottawa, Canada. Alexander, R.B., R.A. Smith, and G.E. Schwarz. 2000. “Effect of Stream Channel Size on the Delivery of Nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico.” Nature 403 (6771): 758–61. Anderies, J.M. 2005. “Minimal Models and Agroecological Policy at the Regional Scale: An Application to Salinity Problems in Southeastern Australia.” Regional Environmental Change 5 (1): 1–17. Anderies, J.M., G. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, G. Peterson, and B. Walker. 2001. “A Resilience Centered Approach for Engaging Stakeholders about Regional Sustainability: An Example from the Goulburn Broken Catchment in Southeastern Australia.” Technical Report. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, Australia. Annear, T., I. Chisholm, H. Beecher, A. Locke, P. Aarrestad, C. Coomer, C. Estes, and others. 2002. Instream Flows for Riverine Resource Stewardship. Bozeman, Mont.: Instream Flow Council.

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