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7. Calyx smaller, lowest lobe 5–6 (–8) mm, laterals 2–3 (–4) mm; fruit usually < 45cm long; at least young leaves with pale or reddish indumentum, terminal leaflet narrower, length/width ratio of terminal leaflet and ratio of abaxial to adaxial halves of lateral leaflets 2:1

        • 1.

          M. macrocarpa

  • 5.

    Fruits medium or large, leathery, asymmetrically oblong, length only up to 4 times width, up to 17 cm long; each margin with a pair of wings

    • 8.

      Fruit surface patterned with reticulation of raised lines but without lamellae

      • 9.

        Reticulation of raised lines so distinct, fine and close as to give surface almost a pitted appearance; fruit ± straight, relatively broad (3.5–)4–5.5(–6) cm wide; infructescence

axis sparsely pubescent

3. M. gigantea

9. Reticulation coarser and often indistinct; fruit distinctly curved, to 3 cm wide; infructescence

axis often densely pubescent (Peninsular Malaysia)

M. acuminata

  • 8.

    Fruit surface with at least a few partly developed lamellae running obliquely or transversely across face

    • 10.

      Lamellae on fruit surface each a simple raised flap, usually continuous across face

      • 11.

        Fruit 1(–very rarely 2)-seeded, oblong to elliptic, often broader than long and never more than 1.5 times as long as broad; surface lamellae tending to converge towards centre of pod; fruit with coarse red bristles and often also dark red, spreading fine pubescence

          • 5.

            M. monosperma

      • 11.

        Fruit (1–)2–3-seeded, oblong to linear-oblong, at least twice as long as broad; lamellae ± parallel; pubescence on vegetative parts absent or pale to golden; fruits with bristles but without conspicuous or red short fine pubescence

        • 12.

          Lamellae on fruit of very irregular height (width) 1–2 mm high but increasing to 4 mm in places and all running to distal edge of wing; wing of irregular width 3–4 mm but widening sharply to 5–6 mm at points where lamellae occur, resulting in a jaggedly

dentate appearance

6. M. stenoplax

12. Lamellae on fruit of fairly uniform height, 4–5 mm high, not extending across wings;

wing wider 8–14 mm wide and of ± uniform width

7. M. hainanensis

  • 10.

    Lamellae bifurcated distally to give a “T-shape” in cross-section and all interrupted along mid-line of fruit

    • 13.

      Lamellae all extending to distal edge of marginal wings at which point wing widens sharply to give a jaggedly toothed appearance; calyx lobes extremely short, lowest 1.5–4 mm,

laterals 0.5–2 mm (Peninsular Malaysia)

M. biplicata

13. Lamellae not extending across wings and wings of ± uniform width; calyx lobes long,

lowest (6–) 7–10 mm, laterals 4–6 mm


Fruit (1–)2 seeded, 6–9 by 4–4.5 cm; lamellae 8–12 in number with strongly revolute apical halves; marginal wings strongly inrolled; bracts never persistent; hairs on infructescence axis and calyx very short, 0.1–0.2 mm, spreading, velvety


8. M. revoluta Fruit 3-seeded, 13–14 by 6–7 cm; lamellae ± 18 in number with spreading or ± upcurved apical halves; marginal wings ± flat; some floral bracts usually persistent to fruiting stage, these large and conspicuous; hairs on calyx and infructescence axis >

0.4 mm, usually adpressed

9. M. interrupta

  • 1.

    Fruits fleshy without marginal wings, linear-oblong (sometimes misshapen/swollen in parts), small < 10 by 1.5 cm, length 5–10 times width; seeds globose or ellipsoid with short hilum and conspicuous rim-aril; leaflets with lateral veins straight or uniformly curved throughout length and clearly running into margin; (B. Subgenus Stizolobium)

    • 15.

      Indumentum of fruit fine, silky, not irritant nor caducous, usually adpressed and pale, often sparse 11c. M. puriens var. utilis

    • 15.

      Indumentum of fruit a dense covering of reddish or brown, spreading, irritant caducous bristles

16. Lower (non fruit-bearing) part of infructescence with numerous bract-scars, some bracts often still present especially near base, these conspicuous, 8–24 mm long; leaflets beneath usually with veins conspicuously darker and less pubescent than surface; fruit straight or

slightly curved

12. M. bracteata

16. Lower part of infructescence lacking bracts and scars, bracts never persistent to fruit stage; leaflet surface not less pubescent nor paler than veins; fruit often markedly curved into “S shape”

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