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Khao Saming, 30 March 1925, Nai Noe 35 (BK); 27 Nov. 1924, A.F.G. Kerr 9445 (BK); Ko Chang, Khlong Nonsi, 3April 1957, Smitinand 5666 (BKF); Ko Chang, Khlong Phlu waterfall, 7 Aug. 2005, Phonsena 4606 (BKF, Herbarium of Khao Hin Son Botanic Garden); Ko Kut, Khlong Chao-Ao Prao, 7April 2002, Phengklai 1333 (BKF)]; PENINSULAR:Yala [Betong, 2 Aug. 1928, A.F.G. Kerr 7466 (BK)].

Distribution.–– Loas,Vietnam, Cambodia.

Ecology.–– In evergreen forest, at 80–700 m altitude. Flowering: January–March. Fruiting: February–June.

Vernacular.–– Chong (°), mak chong (®¤µ°) (Ubon Ratchathani), kaen phao (ÂnÁ¡µ) (Yala), phung thalai (¡»³¨µ¥) (Bangkok), samrong (­¶¦°) (Chanthaburi, Trat).

Uses.–– Wood for plywood. Seed yields copious mucilage used as beverages and medicines to treat diarrhoea, dysentery and asthmatic complaints.

  • 3.

    Scaphium scaphigerum (Wall. ex G. Don) G. Planch., Hist. Nat. Drogues Simples, 7 ed., 3:

  • 653.

    1876; Kosterm., J. Sci. Res. (Jakarta) 2(1): 15. 1953; Phengklai, Fl. Thailand 7(3): 623, p.p.

  • 2001.

    Sterculia scaphigera Wall., Cat. no. 1130. 1828, nom. nud.S. scaphigera Wall. ex

    • G.

      Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 517. 1831 as ‘scatigera’. 1831; Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch. 3: tab. 201.

  • 1889.

    Type: Wallich 1130, lectotype K-W, here designated (the sheet with fruits); isotype

BM, K, SING). Fig. 2.

Tree, up to 45 m high, up to 590 cm girth above buttresses; bole straight; buttresses up to 7 m; bark grayish-brown, smooth, inner bark whitish; twigs terete, glabrous, with prominently raised large leaf scars; young shoots, reddish-brown to greenish-brown, glabrescent. Stipules subulate, glabrous to glabrescent, caducous. Leaves elliptic to ovate, 10–19 by 4–9 cm, base cuneate or obtuse to truncate, apex acuminate, subcoriaceous, glabrous; nerves 5–7 pairs, 3 or 5 nerves at base, scalariform veins prominent on both surfaces. Petioles 3–10 cm long, swollen at both ends. Inflorescences panicled, axillary and terminal, lax, 6.5–20 cm long, erect, pubescent. Perianth campanulate, 5-lobed, 23 by 18 mm, pubescent, reddish with yellow at apex, faintly-scented. Stamens 10–15, arranged in a whorl; anthers 2-celled, yellow. Pistil with 5 carpels, pubescent, red. Androgynophore 10– 12 mm, upper half pilose, curved. Fruit a large follicle, 22–28 by 5–7.2 cm, soon dehiscing, boat-shaped and membranous, pubescent. Seeds subglobose to globose, 1.8–2.2 by 1.7–2 cm, glabrous. Cotyledons sessile, orbicular, thick, pale yellowish, 1.8–2 by 1.6–1.8 by 0.8– 1 cm.

Thailand.–– SOUTHEASTERN: Chachoengsao [Khao Ang Ruenai WS., Bo Thong, 20 Feb. 2007, Phonsena et al. 5335 (BKF)]; Chanthaburi [Khao Khitchakut NP., HQ., 5April 2005, Phonsena et al. 4530 (BK, BKF, L); 20April 2005, Phonsena 4547 (BKF, Herbarium of Khao Hin Son Botanic Garden, Herbarium of Suan Luang Rama IX); 15 Dec. 2005, Phonsena 4743 (BK, BKF, L, Herbarium of Khao Hin Son Botanic Garden: with spirit collection); 23 March 2006, Phonsena & Banchong 4849 (BK, BKF, L, Herbarium of Khao Hin Son Botanic Garden); Khao Khitchakut NP., HQ., 21 Dec. 2006, Phonsena et al. 5294 (BK, BKF, L, Herbarium of Khao Hin Son Botanic Garden: with spirit collection, Herbarium of Suan Luang Rama IX); Khao Phlap (Khao Sai-ngon), 27 Feb. 2001, Phonsena 2948 (Herbarium of

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