Qing Emperors Failed Their People
The Qing dynasty was brought down in 1912 by revolutionaries, whose leader was Dr. Sun Yat-san, after a series of 10 uprisings.
nearly fifty years after the collapse of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
After a series of failed reforms, including the building of the nation’s navy and of ship-building factories
The self-strengthening movement never led China to a modernized country like the reform that took place in Japan under the auspices of Emperor Meiji.
While Japan was evolving into a new modern nation , China’s ruler, Empress Dowager Cixi, was using foreign loans to build a grand imperial garden, Yihe Yuan.