Table 6. Means, standard deviations minimum and maximum values for the Cognitive Strategy Awareness Index and Metacognitive Strategy Awareness Index between two group
Cognitive Strategy Awareness Index
Metacognitive Strategy Awareness Index
Relationships among awareness of cognitive and metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension
Prior to correlation and regression analyses, a moderate positive skewness in CSAI scores was confronted with a square root transformation and a substantially positive skewness in reading accuracy scores with a logarithmic transformation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (rs) for the measures of Cognitive Awareness Strategy Index and reading accuracy were calculated on the basis of transformed values, while for Metacognitive Strategy Awareness Index, reading speed and reading comprehension on the basis of untransformed values.
Table 7 displays that all the intercorrelations were statistically significant. It is note worthy that the reading comprehension correlated moderately with the Cognitive Strategy Awareness Index (r = .565), and Metacognitive Strategy Awareness Index (r = .550). Also, CSAI and MSAI were moderately correlated with reading speed (rs = .652, .662 respectively), but low correlated with reading accuracy (rs = .423, .360 respectively). Not surprisingly, MSAI was highly correlated with CSAI (r = .802). In general, the results revealed a close relationship among cognitive strategy awareness, metacognitive strategy awareness, and reading comprehension. In addition, the fundamental reading skills of reading accuracy and reading speed were also close related to reading comprehension (rs = .536, .559 respectively).
Table 7. Correlations among reading accuracy, speed, comprehension, and awareness of reading strategies (cognitive and metacognitive) for both groups combined (n = 36)
1. Reading comprehension
2. Reading accuracy (errors)
3. Reading speed
4. Cognitive Strategy Awareness Index
5. Metacognitive Strategy Awareness Index
* p < .05 (2-tailed), **p < .01 (2-tailed).
To obtain some further insights into the relationship of reading comprehension with the awareness of reading strategies (cognitive and metacognitive), two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed with reading comprehension as the dependant variable. We conducted two separate regression analyses, and not just one, to avoid multicollinearity, because of the high correlation between cognitive and metacognitive awareness. In addition, we used this type of regression analysis (hierarchical) to determine the independent contribution of cognitive strategies awareness (CSAI) and metacognitive strategies awareness (MSAI) to the reading comprehension, beyond the well-established contribution of reading accuracy and reading speed. Table 8 displays the standardized regression coefficients (β), R and significance of F, for each of the regression analysis, and multiple R2 after each step, R2 change with CSAI or MSAI in the equation, and significance of F change.