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analyses, using Mann-Whitney tests, concerning the efficiency of strategies awareness gave a similar picture to this ‘depicted’ from the analyses with χ2 regarding the frequency of strategies.

Table 3. Frequency of cognitive strategy awareness among poor and good readers

Cognitive Strategy

Reading Group

Poor

Good

χ2 (1)

p

Organization cognitive strategies

Underlining

no

1

1

.00

nv****

yes

17

17

Using dictionaries

no

6

4

.55

.457

yes

12

14

Using titles

no

10

2

8.00

.012*

yes

8

16

Writing down

no

17

17

.00

nv****

yes

1

1

Elaborate cognitive strategies

Guessing from the context

no

15

2

18.84

.000***

yes

3

16

Activating prior knowledge

no

16

4

16.20

.000***

yes

2

14

Keeping meaning in the mind

no

17

7

12.50

.001***

yes

1

11

Summarizing

no

18

16

2.12

nv****

yes

0

2

Imagery

no

16

7

9.75

.005**

yes

2

11

Strategies based on linguistics features

Using linguistic clues

no

17

4

19.31

.000***

yes

1

14

Using text markers

no

14

7

5.60

.018*

yes

4

11

Others

Skipping the difficult parts

no

5

15

11.25

.002**

yes

13

3

Repeating words or phrases

no

12

15

1.33

nv****

yes

6

3

*p <.05 significance of Fisher’s Exact Test at the 2-tailed level, **p ≤.01, ***p ≤.001, nv****= the χ2 statistic was not valid.

Awareness of metacognitive strategies

Descriptive statistics (frequency and corresponding percentage) for each strategy are presented in Table 4; accordingly, the cognitive strategies were ranked from the highest percentage to the lowest. There were a total of 120 reports of metacognitive strategy use.

As it is indicated in Table 4, good readers reported that they employ metacognitive strategies more frequently than poor readers; as twice and a half more instances of metacognitive strategies were reported by good readers comparatively to poor readers. It was worth mentioning  that no 6th grade poor readers reported the most “demanding” monitoring and planning strategies such as comprehension control, overviewing the text and important parts, and directed attention, as well as the most sophisticated evaluation strategy of self correction with automatic explanation of the error. From a total of 10 metacognitive strategies reported in the study, rereading, performance or text evaluation and slowing down reading were the three most favourite ones among poor readers, while rereading, selective attention and performance or text evaluation were the three most favourite ones among poor readers, (see Table 4).

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