The first discovered occurrence of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans in the Czech Republic
Mazáková Jana, Zouhar Miloslav, Ryšánek Pavel, Táborský Vladimír
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agronomy, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21, Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (1876), the causal agent of late blight of potato and tomato plants, is heterothallic organism with two known mating types designated as A1 and A2. The common presence of hyphaes of both mating types evokes the formation of a female sex organ “oogonium” and a male sex organ “antheridium”. Sexual spores “oospores“ form by the growing of the oogonium through the antheridium. The aim of this study was to detect occurrence of A2 mating type in the Czech Republic region, as it is known from literature that importance of oospores shows into higher genetic variability of new recombinant populations. Development and distribution of new genotypes are associated with higher level resistance against systemic fungicides as well. In spite of dry weather in the year 2003, inappropriate for development of Phytophthora infestans, samples of infectious tissue were collected during June. Isolates come from early potato growing season locality - Lysá nad Labem, late potato growing season locality - Želiv, Okřesaneč and from three collections from Olešná. One isolate was isolated from a tuber of unknown origin. All of isolates were tested for mating types by three methods. Classical biological test determines mating types by pairing of tested isolates with isolates of the known mating type A1 or A2 on agar in Petri dishes. The second method is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - amplification of DNA fragment that is specific for A2 mating type. By PCR-RFLP analysis (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism) polynucleotide sequences of both mating types are amplified and eventual differences show after digestion by a restriction endonuclease. All of these methods proved occurrence of both mating types A1 and A2 in the Czech Republic. Occurrence of A2 mating type was not detected previously.
Classical Proteomics on Eukaryotic Microbes by the Aberdeen Proteomics Service Facility 1 (PRF1) of COGEME
Zhikang Yin1, David Stead1, Laura Selway1, Janet Walker1, Philip Cash2 & Alistair J.P. Brown1
1. Aberdeen Fungal Group; and 2. Aberdeen Proteome Facility, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK. E; : T; +44 (1224) 555882.
The Aberdeen Proteomics Service Facility 1 (PSF1) of COGEME (Consortium for the Functional Genomics of Microbial Eukaryotes) performs classical proteomics services involving protein extraction, 2D gel electrophoresis, gel imaging and analysis, peptide mass fingerprinting and protein identification for a wide range of eukaryotic microbes. These include model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Caenorhabditis elegans, plant pathogens such as Magnaporthe grisae, and medically important pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (). Specialised protein extraction conditions have been developed for these organisms, and in some cases, new procedures are being optimised to cope with specialised growth conditions or developmental stages. Several types of project have been undertaken. One type has involved the identification of proteins that interact with a specific target, by peptide mass fingerprinting of proteins isolated by TAP tagging. A second type of project has involved the characterisation of the proteomic response to a specific environmental insult or to a specific genetic lesion. Here, proteins showing statistically significant changes in their levels following the change in condition are detected by quantitative 2D gel electrophoresis and then identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. A third type of project has been the generation of 2D maps for different eukaryotic microbes, such as C. albicans and C. glabrata. Proteomic analyses such as these are proving particularly useful in organisms where transcript profiling has not yet been set up, and for the validation of new genome annotations.
COGEME- Consortium for the Functional Genomics of Microbial Eukaryotes: Facilities For The Functional Analysis of Microbial Genomes.
June Petty 1, Susan Francis 2, Zhikang Yin 3, Andrew Hayes 1, Mike Cornell 5, Michael Wilson 5, Darren Soanes 4, Alistair Brown 3, Phil Cash 3, Simon J Gaskell 2, Nicholas J Talbot 4, Andrew Brass 5, Norman Paton 5, Stephen G Oliver 1.
(1) School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK (2) Michael Barber Centre for Mass Spectrometry, Department of Chemistry, UMIST, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK (3) Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Aberdeen AB25 2ZD (4) School of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Washington Singer Laboratories, Perry Road Exeter EX4 4QG (5) Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL. E: email@example.com
COGEME is a UK based microbial functional genomics consortium and an international platform for fungal research, offering publicly available services and resources for functional genomics (). COGEME was initiated in 2000 and the COGEME resource consortium consists of three service facilities and a bioinformatics centre located in four UK universities (Aberdeen, Exeter Manchester and UMIST). It provides services for transcriptome analysis, classical and advanced proteomics, as well as a bioinformatics service consisting of data collection, validation, storage, dissemination and analysis for both transcriptome and proteome data. Transcriptome data is stored in a genome data warehouse and analysis environment (GIMS). Proteome data is stored in the Proteome Experiment Data Repository (PEDRo). A public