9UMR APBV, Domaine de la Motte BP 35327, Le Rheu Cedex 35653, France. E-mail: 4ADAS Boxworth, Cambridge, CB3 8NN, UK. E-mail: 5 CETIOM, B.P. no. 4, Thiverval-Grignon 78850, France. E-mail: 6 IGR PAN, Strzeszynska 34, Poznan, 60-479, Poland. E-mail: 7Svalöf Weibull AB, Svalöv, SE-268 81, Sweden. E-mail: 8 IUNG-Pulawy, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland. 10 Dept. of Phytopathology, August Cieszkowski Agricultural University, Dabrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznan, Poland. E-mail: email@example.com
The main aim of SECURE (StEm Canker of oilseed rape: molecular tools and mathematical modelling to deploy dUrable REsistance) is to deliver a model for deployment of cultivars with resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker/blackleg) to improve durability of resistance and minimise risk that the resistance will break down. The project has four main parts. Firstly, a life-cycle model for L. maculans has been developed. This is currently being validated using existing data. Secondly, the fitness of virulent/avirulent races of the pathogen is being investigated. Genomic analysis of avirulence and virulence loci of the pathogen is also being done. Thirdly, the effects of plant genetic background and environmental factors on durability of resistance are being analysed. This is being done in the field at a number of sites across Europe and also under controlled conditions. Lastly, models are being developed to investigate the effects of different methods of resistance deployment on durability of resistance so that recommendations can be made for a sustainable strategy. Results are being disseminated during the course of the project using a website (www.secure.rothamsted.ac.uk), scientific and popular publications and workshops. The SECURE project is supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme (QLK5-CT-2002-01813).
Biodiversity and genetic resources for Brassica napus and its major fungal pathogens within the UK Defra Oilseed Rape Genetic Improvement Network (OREGIN)
A.O. Latunde-Dada1, G.R. Teakle2, N. Evans1, P. Hornby1, D.A.C. Pink2, B.D.L. Fitt1 G.J. King2, and I. R. Crute1
1. Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts., AL5 2JQ, UK, 2. Warwick HRI, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV35 9EF, UK, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
As with many modern crops, oilseed rape exhibits genetic erosion due to allelic canalisation. This may restrict the scope for further crop improvement to address such issues as sustainable agriculture. Breeders therefore require access to novel alleles, but in a form that is well characterised. Within the UK Defra Oilseed Rape Genetic Improvement Network (OREGIN – see ) we are developing a Brassica napus Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (BnDFFS). This will be a public-domain set of 188 genetically fixed lines structured to represent the diversity within the species. The use of fixed lines enables trait and genotype data to be accumulated over time for common genetic material, and provides a number of advantages over diversity collections containing heterozygous or mixed lines. In addition, OREGIN has adopted the Tapidor x Ningyou 7 oilseed rape segregating DH population (TN population), developed by Prof. J. Meng and colleagues at Huazhong Agricultural University, China, as a complimentary public resource. A genetic linkage map for this population is currently being developed within the EU project IMSORB (http://brassica.bbsrc.ac.uk/IMSORB) and will be available later this year. The combination of these two plant resources will enable mapped genetic markers to be used in allelic diversity surveys and trait diversity analysis to be associated with the genetic map. A third set of resources being developed within the project are diversity collections for two major UK oilseed rape fungal pathogens, namely Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma lingam, causing phoma leaf spot and blackleg or stem canker) and Pyrenopeziza brassicae (Cylindrosporium concentricum, causing light leaf spot). A database of important UK and exotic isolates of these pathogens is currently being compiled. Future work will involve allelic diversity assessments of these collections, using SSR and AFLP markers, together with screening them against the BnDFFS to look for novel sources of resistance.
The Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana Mark Diamond, Olga Rocha*, Fiona Doohan* and Paul F. McCabe
Departments of Botany and * Environmental Resource Management, UCD, Dublin 4, Ireland. email:
Some of the most commercially devastating diseases of crop plants are caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. They not only severely reduce yield but also contaminate grain with a variety of mycotoxins that are poisonous to humans and livestock alike. Two such mycotoxins are; deoxynivalenol (DON – F. graminearum and F. culmorum) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 – F. moniliforme). Both are known to trigger PCD in animal cells. Only FB1 has been shown to cause PCD in plants. Here we investigate the effects of DON treatment on Arabidopsis cells. Although DON induces PCD in animal cells, we found that it does not in plants. In fact our studies show that DON actually blocks PCD in Arabidopsis cells.
Incidence of Fusarium Head Blight disease (FHB) and mycotoxin production in Irish-grown wheat from 2001 to 2003 and their relationship with climatic factors
Suzanne Monaghan, Gerard Leonard, Josephine Brennan, Fiona Doohan and Bryan Michael Cooke
Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions Group, Department of Environmental Resource Management, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland