Ethical Responsibilities Be ethical
Legal Responsibilities Obey the law
Economic Responsibilities Be profitable
Figure 4: Adaptation of Carroll’s (1991) social pyramid.
The theories studied in relation to communication encompass both internal and external communication. Internal communication is evaluated through the phenomenon auto- communication228, highlighting the importance of external communication for internal stakeholders. Evaluation of external communication consists of the integration of brand, marketing and CSR229 and
Morsing & Schultz’s230
communication model for CSR.
5.3.1 Marketing and CSR communication The communication of CSR, in contrast to marketing communication, should not be used for the sole
purpose of selling as much as possible.231 Consumers increasingly want to be informed about CSR efforts232 and prefer CSR communication in the form of labeling, PR and voluntary initiatives.233 There is also a younger demographic segment, CSR activists that is very socially conscious.234 Nonetheless, CSR can still be a tool for brand-building - by aligning the marketing strategy with the CSR approach. However, there is yet only limited integration between CSR and marketing departments and their respective strategies.235 Three different strategies for aligning marketing with CSR are outlined: the integrated approach whereby the brand and CSR operate in synchrony; the selective approach where CSR manifests itself in the form of sub-brands or strategic partnerships; and the invisible approach where CSR plays an understated role in external communication and initiatives. The integrated approach is most effective when CSR is a key driver of consumer
228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235
Morsing, M. (2006). Hansted Blomqvist, K. & Posner, S. (2004). Morsing, M. & Schultz, S. (2006). Morsing, M. & Schultz, S. (2006). Lewis, S. (2001); Lewis, S. (2003), Dawkins, J. & Lewis, S. (2003), Endacott, R. (2004). Dawkins, J. (2004). Dawkins, J. (2004), De Pelsmacker, P. et al (2005). Hansted Blomqvist, K. & Posner, S. (2004).