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3. Stakeholder Involvement Strategy The stakeholder involvement strategy assumes that the company engages in a dialogue with its stakeholders, with both parts trying to persuade the other to change. According to this strategy, companies should not only influence, but also seek to be influenced by stakeholders and therefore change when necessary. By engaging in dialogue with stakeholders, the company ideally ensures that it keeps up with not only its stakeholders' expectations, but also with its potential influence on those expectations, as well as letting those expectations influence and change the company itself. This is considered the most appropriate type of CSR strategy according to Morsing & Schultz243 as it builds more legitimacy and a more positive reputation through lasting stakeholder relations than the other strategies.

Communication ideal: sensemaking and sensegiving

Sensemaking

Sensemaking Sensegiving

Sensemaking Sensegiving – in iterative progressive processes

Stakeholders

Request more information on corporate efforts

Must be reassured that the company is ethical and socially responsible

Co-construct corporate CSR efforts

Stakeholder role

Stakeholder influence: Support or oppose

Stakeholders respond to corporate actions

Stakeholders are involved, participate and suggest corporate actions

Strategic communication task

Inform stakeholders about favorable corporate CSR decisions and actions

Demonstrate to stakeholders how the company integrates their concerns

Invite and establish frequent, systematic and pro-active dialogue with stakeholders, i.e. opinion makers, corporate critics, the media, etc.

Third-party endorsement of CSR initiatives

Unnecessary

Integrated element of surveys, rankings and opinion polls

Stakeholders are themselves involved in corporate CSR messages

Figure 5: CSR Communication strategies (adapted from Morsing & Schultz’s (2006) CSR communication framework).

The stakeholder information strategy

Two-way symmetric communication

The stakeholder response strategy

The stakeholder involvement strategy

Communication ideal Public information, one-

(Grunig Hunt 1984)

way communication

Two way asymmetric information

243

Morsing, M. & Schultz, S. (2006).

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