In this section, we analyze the empirical findings in conjuncture with our chosen theories in order to answer our research question: “Why and how does IKEA engage in CSR?” We begin by analyzing IKEA's motivations for CSR. After we have established their motivations, we proceed to establish IKEA's CSR strategy: as a supplement to corporate strategy244 and as a strategy in its own right245. We complement this with an analysis of Carroll’s246 responsibilities as related to strategy. Finally, we take a closer look at IKEA's marketing and communication in terms of marketing and of communication strategies.
K.1 Motivations for CSR
We have used the theoretical research as a tool to group the empirical findings into different classes of motivations for CSR in order to better understand the way IKEA views CSR. The empirical findings along with secondary sources provide insight into which motivations IKEA considers as primary and secondary drivers of CSR. We have chosen to use the following grouping as we have gone through our empirical findings and discovered discrepancies between stated motivations and the remaining empirical findings. We believe that this will give us a more nuanced picture of CSR motivations at IKEA. We have grouped our motivations under the following titles:
Group Motivations stated as important by the interviewees and which are supported by the remaining empirical findings
• • • • • • •
Motivation Moral obligation/Common goods approach Legitimacy/License to operate Total quality management (TQM) Sustainability Reputation and risk management Attracting and retaining employees Brand & effects on consumer preference
Motivations that are stated as important by the interviewees but which are not consistent with the remaining empirical findings
Motivations that are not specifically mentioned by the interviewees but for which there are empirical findings
Figure 6: Motivation groups derived from empirical findings.
K.1.1 Motivations for CSR stated as important by IKEA and supported by remaining empirical findings:
Moral obligation/Common goods approach CSR was mentioned as a way for IKEA to engage in more than just “buying and selling”247 and that
there was a moral purpose to its business and thereby also its CSR was stipulated by its social vision “Better everyday life for the majority of people”. IKEA historically saw itself as “doing good” by opening new stores in order to reach more people, allowing them to buy quality furniture at low prices and thereby increase their standard of living248. This company view is internally exemplified by IKEA’s costly move into Russia.249 However, the empirical findings indicate that IKEA’s view on this
244 245 246 247 248 249
Porter, M. & Kramer, M. (2006), Burke, L. & Logsdon, J. (1996). Galbreath, J. ( 2006). Carroll, A. (1991). Interview, Koerfer, S., 2008-10-22. Interview, Koerfer, S., 2008-10-22. Interview, Gyhlenius, A., 2008-11-10.