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484

Circulation

July 31, 2007

TABLE 1. Baseline Characteristics of Participants According to Soft Drink Consumption (n8997)

No. of Soft

Drinks Consumed

Per Day

1 (n5840)

1 (n1918)

2 (n1239)

P*

5610 42.8 12719 7610 48.9 22.5 18.9 26.84.8 20.9 75.516.1 36.05.6 33.9 36.3 32.0 20637 12934 12783 28.3 5216 34.8 37.5 32.8 9721 28.2 6.1 29.1 366 2.63.9 17.5

5310 50.2 12517 7710 46.7 18.7 16.1 27.85.1 27.1 79.416.9 36.95.7 37.2 40.9 33.4 20437 12833 141119 32.7 5015 38.7 42.0 35.5 9926 30.4 7.5 32.2 367 2.73.8 17.5

519 53.4 12618 7811 48.4 21.6 17.6 28.55.4 32.1 82.118.1 37.86.1 41.1 48.1 33.2 20238 12734 148118 35.9 4714 46.1 45.1 47.2 10539 33.7 12.4 37.3 367 2.74.1 25.7

  0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0014 0.0011 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001¶ 0.0001¶ 0.72 0.30 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001¶ 0.0001¶ 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.74 0.14 0.0009

22.39.6

24.611.5

0.0001

3.11.9

3.52.3

0.0001

17.97.1

17.07.6

0.0001

304105

296111

0.0002

553

554

0.0001

1959654

2009745

0.0837

Characteristic

Age, y Men, % Systolic BP, mm Hg Diastolic BP, mm Hg BP 130/85 mm Hg or on treatment, % Hypertension, % Treatment for hypertension, % BMI, kg/m2 BMI 30 kg/m2, % Weight, kg Waist circumference, in Increased waist circumference, %†

Men Women Total cholesterol, mg/dL Low-density liporotein cholesterol, mg/dL

Triglycerides, mg/dL High triglycerides, %‡ HDL-C, mg/dL Low HDL-C, %§

Men Women Blood sugar, mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose, %Diabetes mellitus, % Metabolic syndrome, % Physical activity index, % Alcohol, drinks/wk Smoking, % Dietary variables, g/d

Saturated fat Trans fat Dietary fiber Magnesium, mg/d Glycemic index Total energy, cal/d#

    • 20.9

      9.8

    • 2.9

      1.9

    • 18.4

      7.9

308111 543 1855611

All values are meanSD unless otherwise noted. BP indicates blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; and LDL-C, LDL cholesterol. *P comparing all 3 categories of soft drink consumption, adjusted for age and sex.

  • Increased waist circumference 40 in (102 cm) for men and 35 in (88 cm) for women.

  • 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L) or undergoing treatment with fibrates or nicotinic acid.

§Low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL 1.03 mmol/L, women 50 mg/dL 1.3 mmol/L).

  • 100 mg/dL or undergoing treatment.

¶Age-adjusted. #Sample sizes are n2742, 820, and 466, respectively.

though the association of high fructose corn syrup intake and insulin resistance may be a contributory mechanism,31 in the present study, both regular and diet soft drinks appeared to pose similar metabolic hazards, which sug-

gests that other factors may be operational. Consumption of liquids is associated with a lesser degree of dietary compensation (the adjustment in energy intake made in subsequent meals in response to food intake). Some

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