X hits on this document

PDF document

Key Words: diabetes mellitus  metabolic syndrome  epidemiology  obesity  risk factors  ... - page 8 / 11





8 / 11

Dhingra et al

observational nature of the present study, we cannot infer that the observed associations are causal. As noted above, it is conceivable that residual confounding by lifestyle/dietary factors not adjusted for may have contributed to the metabolic risks associated with soft drink intake. Finally, participants in the present study were all white Americans, which may limit the generalizability of our results to nonwhites.

Conclusions In our large community-based sample of middle-aged adults, soft drink consumption was associated with higher risk of developing adverse metabolic traits and the metabolic syndrome. The present observational data raise the possibility that public health policy measures to limit the rising consumption of soft drinks in the community may be associated with a lowering of the burden of metabolic risk factors in adults.

Sources of Funding

This work was supported through National Institutes of Health/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts N01-HC-25195, 1R01HL67288, and 2K24HL04334 (Dr Vasan) and K23HL74077 (Dr Wang) and by a career development award from the American Diabetes Association (Dr Meigs).




  • 1.

    Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and

    • 2001.

      Am J Prev Med. 2004;27:205–210.

  • 2.

    Vereecken CA, Inchley J, Subramanian SV, Hublet A, Maes L. The relative influence of individual and contextual socio-economic status on consumption of fruit and soft drinks among adolescents in Europe. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15:224–232.

  • 3.

    James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, Kerr D. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised con- trolled trial (published correction appears in BMJ. 2004;328:1236). BMJ. 2004;328:1237.

  • 4.

    Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, obser- vational analysis. Lancet. 2001;357:505–508.

  • 5.

    Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA. 2004;292: 927–934.

  • 6.

    Troiano RP, Briefel RR, Carroll MD, Bialostosky K. Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1343S–1353S.

  • 7.

    Winkelmayer WC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Curhan GC. Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women. JAMA. 2005;294: 2330 –2335.

  • 8.

    Parks EJ, Hellerstein MK. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycer- olemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:412–433.

  • 9.

    Smith JB, Niven BE, Mann JI. The effect of reduced extrinsic sucrose intake on plasma triglyceride levels. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:498–504.

  • 10.

    Surwit RS, Feinglos MN, McCaskill CC, Clay SL, Babyak MA, Brownlow BS, Plaisted CS, Lin PH. Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:908–915.

  • 11.

    Swanson JE, Laine DC, Thomas W, Bantle JP. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:851–856.

  • 12.

    Jurgens H, Haass W, Castaneda TR, Schurmann A, Koebnick C, Dom- browski F, Otto B, Nawrocki AR, Scherer PE, Spranger J, Ristow M, Joost HG, Havel PJ, Tschop MH. Consuming fructose-sweetened bev- erages increases body adiposity in mice. Obes Res. 2005;13:1146–1156.

  • 13.

    Drewnowski A, Bellisle F. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:651–661.

Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals

Soft Drink Consumption and Metabolic Risk


  • 14.

    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Costa

    • F.

      Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation. 2005;13:322–327.

  • 15.

    Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Parise H, Sullivan L, Meigs JB. Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2005;112:3066–3072.

  • 16.

    Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the American Diabetes Asso- ciation and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2289–2304.

  • 17.

    Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore FE. Epidemiologic approaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Public Health. 1951;41:279–286.

  • 18.

    Kannel WB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Garrison RJ, Castelli WP. An investigation of coronary heart disease in families: the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110:281–290.

  • 19.

    Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquan- titative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122:51–65.

  • 20.

    Kannel WB, Belanger A, D’Agostino R, Israel I. Physical activity and physical demand on the job and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1986;112:820–825.

  • 21.

    Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health profes- sionals. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:1114–1126.

  • 22.

    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285:2486–2497.

  • 23.

    Cupples LA, D’Agostino RB, Anderson K, Kannel WB. Comparison of baseline and repeated measure covariate techniques in the Framingham Heart Study. Stat Med. 1988;7:205–222.

  • 24.

    D’Agostino RB, Lee ML, Belanger AJ, Cupples LA, Anderson K, Kannel WB. Relation of pooled logistic regression to time dependent Cox regression analysis: the Framingham Heart Study. Stat Med. 1990;9: 1501–1515.

  • 25.

    Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA. Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:1992–2000.

  • 26.

    Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Effects of soft drink con- sumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:667–675.

  • 27.

    Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:274S–280S.

  • 28.

    Yoo S, Nicklas T, Baranowski T, Zakeri IF, Yang SJ, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Comparison of dietary intakes associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:841–848.

  • 29.

    Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Field AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obesity Res. 2004; 12:778 –788.

  • 30.

    Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:537–543.

  • 31.

    Elliott SS, Keim NL, Stern JS, Teff K, Havel PJ. Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:911–922.

  • 32.

    Frost G, Leeds AA, Dore CJ, Madeiros S, Brading S, Dornhorst A. Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concen- tration. Lancet. 1999;353:1045–1048.

  • 33.

    Van Wymelbeke V, Beridot-Therond ME, de LG, V, Fantino M. Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:154–161.

  • 34.

    Holt SH, Sandona N, Brand-Miller JC. The effects of sugar-free vs sugar-rich beverages on feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51:59–71.

  • 35.

    Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:933–935.

  • 36.

    Hofmann SM, Dong HJ, Li Z, Cai W, Altomonte J, Thung SN, Zeng F, Fisher EA, Vlassara H. Improved insulin sensitivity is associated with restricted intake of dietary glycoxidation products in the db/db mouse. Diabetes. 2002;51:2082–2089.

  • 37.

    Vlassara H, Cai W, Crandall J, Goldberg T, Oberstein R, Dardaine V, Peppa M, Rayfield EJ. Inflammatory mediators are induced by dietary

.org/ by guest on February 4, 2015

Document info
Document views33
Page views33
Page last viewedFri Dec 16 09:44:21 UTC 2016