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observational nature of the present study, we cannot infer that the observed associations are causal. As noted above, it is conceivable that residual confounding by lifestyle/dietary factors not adjusted for may have contributed to the metabolic risks associated with soft drink intake. Finally, participants in the present study were all white Americans, which may limit the generalizability of our results to nonwhites.
Conclusions In our large community-based sample of middle-aged adults, soft drink consumption was associated with higher risk of developing adverse metabolic traits and the metabolic syndrome. The present observational data raise the possibility that public health policy measures to limit the rising consumption of soft drinks in the community may be associated with a lowering of the burden of metabolic risk factors in adults.
Sources of Funding
This work was supported through National Institutes of Health/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts N01-HC-25195, 1R01HL67288, and 2K24HL04334 (Dr Vasan) and K23HL74077 (Dr Wang) and by a career development award from the American Diabetes Association (Dr Meigs).
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