ordinary income, long‐term and short‐term capital gains, and return of capital. If information is not available timely from a REIT, the recharacterization will be estimated for financial statement purposes and a recharacterization will be made within the accounting records in the following year when such information becomes available. Distributions received from REITs in excess of income are recorded as either a reduction of cost of investments or realized gains. The Fund distinguishes between dividends received on a tax basis and a financial reporting basis and only distributions in excess of tax basis earnings and profits are reported in the financial statements as a tax return of capital.
Other. Investment transactions are accounted for on a trade date plus one basis for daily net asset valuation calculations. However, for financial reporting purposes, investment transactions are reported on trade date. Interest income is recorded on the accrual basis. Dividend income is recorded on the ex‐dividend date net of foreign withholding taxes. Realized gains and losses from investment transactions are recorded on an identified cost basis. Proceeds from litigation payments, if any, are included in net realized gain (loss) from investments.
B. Derivative Instruments
Futures Contracts. A futures contract is an agreement between a buyer or seller and an established futures exchange or its clearinghouse in which the buyer or seller agrees to take or make a delivery of a specific amount of a financial instrument at a specified price on a specific date (settlement date). For the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Fund invested in futures to keep cash on hand to meet shareholder redemptions or other needs while maintaining exposure to the stock market.
Upon entering into a futures contract, the Fund is required to deposit with a financial intermediary cash or securities (“initial margin”) in an amount equal to a certain percentage of the face value indicated in the futures contract. Subsequent payments (“variation margin”) are made or received by the Fund dependent upon the daily fluctuations in the value and are recorded for financial reporting purposes as unrealized gains or losses by the Fund. Gains or losses are realized when the contract expires or is closed. Since all futures contracts are exchange traded, counterparty risk is minimized as the exchange's clearinghouse acts as the counterparty, and guarantees the futures against default.
Certain risks may arise upon entering into futures contracts, including the risk that an illiquid market will limit the Fund's ability to close out a futures contract prior to the settlement date and the risk that the futures contract is not well correlated with the security, index or currency to which it relates. Risk of loss may exceed amounts disclosed in the Statement of Assets and Liabilities.
A summary of the open futures contracts as of June 30, 2014 is included in a table following the Fund's Investment Portfolio. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, the investment in futures contracts purchased had a total notional value generally indicative of a range from approximately $7,201,000 to $9,403,000.
The following tables summarize the value of the Fund's derivative instruments held as of June 30, 2014 and the related location in the accompanying Statement of Assets and Liabilities, presented by primary underlying risk exposure:
Asset Derivative Equity Contracts (a)
The above derivative is located in the following Statement of Assets and Liabilities account:
(a) Includes cumulative appreciation of futures contracts as disclosed in the Investment Portfolio. Unsettled variation margin is disclosed separately within the Statement of Assets and Liabilities.
Additionally, the amount of unrealized and realized gains and losses on derivative instruments recognized in Fund earnings during the six months ended June 30, 2014 and the related location in the accompanying Statement of Operations is summarized in the following tables by primary underlying risk exposure:
Realized Gain (Loss) Equity Contracts (a)
The above derivative is located in the following Statement of Operations account: (a) Net realized gain (loss) from futures
Change in Net Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation) Equity Contracts (a)
The above derivative is located in the following Statement of Operations account: (a) Change in net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) on futures
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