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insoluble in the solution that contains separate counter and reference electrodes. By

applying an electric potential difference between the electrodes, counter ion from the

electrolyte diffuses into the polymer in the form of electron addition (n doping) or

removal (p doping). 2 One of the problem with organic semiconductor is that p-type

material is much more prevalent than n-type because electron rich n-type is unstable in

the presence of oxygen. Organic semiconductor can only be useful for devices if both p-

type and n-type are both incorporated. The most widely used organic semiconductors are

pentacene, thiophene oligomers, and regioregular polythiophene.3

In organic semiconductors, the macroscopic properties of the material can be

attributed to both the properties of the individual molecules and the structural order of the

molecules in the film. These properties can be controlled by either synthesizing

molecules with optimal characteristics or by controlling the fabrication conditions. For

example, carrier mobility in rod-like molecules can increase if the organic material has

long π conjugation length along the long axis and close molecular packing of the

molecules.

3

Figure 5

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