and no biologically relevant differences were noted” (FDA, 2006: F?). However, the data show that of the 17 amino acid levels measured, 16 were slightly lower in the clones; of the 13 fatty acids and cholesterol levels measured, all but two fatty acid levels and the cholesterol level were slightly higher in the clones. The FDA does not mention nor discuss these differences; they simply state that the difference were not “biologically relevant.”
The second study looked at offspring of cloned pigs. Four boar clones (3 Hamline and 1 Duroc) were bred to 49 female pigs (gilts) and three AI-derived boars (the Hamline nuclear donor and two AI sons of the Duroc nuclear donor) were bred to 40 female pigs (gilts). As a result of these breedings, there were 36 litters (402 total progeny) from the clone boars and 25 litters (300 total progeny) from the non-clone comparator boars. However, for the carcass characteristics and meat composition data, Viagen supplied data on only 242 of the 402 clone progeny and 163 of the 300 progeny of non-clone comparators. No statistically significant differences were found in the carcass characteristics, although, unlike with the clones, the back fat values were larger for all three areas measured (first rib, last rib, last lumbar) for offspring of clones compared to offspring of non-clone comparators for both breeds (e.g. Hamline, Duroc) (Table F-17, FDA, 2006).
For the meat composition data, although no clear differences in the average values for most nutrients (amino acids, fatty acids and cholesterol, minerals, and vitamins) were found, it is interesting that the variability (e.g. the standard deviation) of the data for 14 of the 15 amino acid tested for was higher for the progeny of clones compared to non- clone progeny. For the amino acids, 7 of the 15 had higher values, 4 had lower values, and 4 had the same value for progeny of clones compared to progeny of non-clone comparators (Table F-18, FDA, 2006).
In sum, the available data are not adequate to draw a conclusion about the safety of pork from clones.
Food safety assessment of goat clones and their progeny
When it comes to the safety of milk and meat from cloned goats, FDA notes that “No meat or milk composition data were identified.” In addition, no milk and meat composition data are available for progeny of goat clones. Rather than conclude that more data are needed, FDA instead concludes that “products from goat clones pose no additional food consumption risks.” It is contrary to the fundamental principles of scientific inquiry to come to a conclusion without any data to support it. FDA cannot validly conclude that milk and meat from goats is safe.
FDA Food safety conclusions overall
Overall, FDA had actual data on milk composition from 43 cloned cows and no data on milk from offspring of cloned cows. For meat composition, FDA had data from 16 cloned cows and no data for offspring of cloned cows. For pigs, FDA looked at data