Diamond.This mineral's name comes from the Greek word adamos, meaning unbreak- able or indestructible. In time, this word be- came almaz, which in Russian means un- cut or raw diamond. Organic, clear raw di- amonds of gemstone quality are called bril- liants, from the French word for “sparkling.” This term came into use in the 17th century after the invention of brilliant-cut faceting.
Diamond is one of the crystalline forms of carbon. They are usually colorless, but various impurities can lightly tint them yel- low, brown, blue, green, and pink. Diamond is rightly considered the king of precious stones, as they are more highly valued than any other gem.
Since ancient times diamond has been regarded a precious stone of the high- est class. It also has been attributed many mystical qualities: in one ritual in India and Iran, a pinch of diamond dust was sprinkled on the head of a baby by his father on his naming day, thus ensuring the child health, prosperity, and long life.
Care: Diamonds are hard but extremely brittle, so they should be protected from ac- cidental blows, quick changes in tempera- ture, and open flames.
Amethyst is quartz of a violet col- or, and is often used during medita- tion. Amethyst can bring fame, luck, and wealth to its possessor. As an amulet, this stone protects against drunkenness and drug addiction. It improves vision, regulates digestion, and prevents kidney disease. Violet amethyst is good for philosophers and scientists, as it aids in memoriza- tion and comprehension of new in- formation. Purple amethyst should be worn only by well-balanced peo- ple, as it promotes the development of opportunism and risk-taking.