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and Le (2003) reported that 62% of Asian women in San Francisco massage parlors had been physically assaulted by customers. These data were from only 50% of the massage parlors in San Francisco. The other 50%—those brothels controlled by pimps/ traffickers who refused entrance to the researchers—were proba- bly even more violent toward the women inside. Raymond, D’Cunha, et al. (2002) found that 80% of women who had been trafficked or prostituted suffered violence-related injuries in pros- titution. Among the women interviewed by Parriott (1994), 85% had been raped in prostitution. In another study, 94% of those in street prostitution had experienced sexual assault and 75% had been raped by one or more johns (Miller, 1995). In the Nether- lands, where prostitution is legal, 60% of prostituted women suf- fered physical assaults; 70% experienced verbal threats of physi- cal assault; 40% experienced sexual violence; and 40% had been forced into prostitution or sexual abuse by acquaintances (Vanwesenbeeck, 1994). Most young women in prostitution were abused or beaten by johns as well as pimps. Silbert and Pines (1981, 1982b) reported that 70% of women suffered rape in prosti- tution, with 65% having been physically assaulted by customers and 66% assaulted by pimps.

Of 854 people in prostitution in nine countries (Canada, Colombia, Germany, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, United States, and Zambia), 71% experienced physical assaults in prostitution, and 62% reported rapes in prostitution (Farley, Cot- ton, et al., 2003). Eighty-nine percent told the researchers that they wanted to leave prostitution but did not have other options for economic survival. To normalize prostitution as a reasonable job choice for poor women makes invisible their strong desire to escape prostitution.

Vanwesenbeeck (1994) found that two factors were associated with greater violence in prostitution. The greater the poverty, the greater the violence; and the longer one is in prostitution, the more likely one is to experience violence. Similarly, the more time women spent in prostitution, the more STDs they reported (Parriott, 1994).

Those promoting prostitution rarely address class, race, and ethnicity as factors that make women even more vulnerable to health risks in prostitution. Farley (2003a) found that in NZ, as

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