Farley / HARMS OF PROSTITUTION
long-term physical consequences of torture (Peel, Hinshelwood, & Forrest, 2000; Vesti, Somnier, & Kastrup, 1992).
ARE THERE DIFFERENCES IN STREET, BROTHEL, AND STRIP-CLUB PROSTITUTION THAT AFFECT WOMEN’S HEALTH AND SAFETY?
It has been assumed that decriminalization/legalization will decrease street prostitution and that prostitution will then move indoors, where it will be physically safer for those in it. Those pro- moting legalized prostitution suggest that women will be safer in indoor prostitution than they are in street prostitution. However, women in Chicago reported the same frequency of rape in escort and in street prostitution (Raphael & Shapiro, 2002).
No research has demonstrated that legal prostitution decreases illegal (street and brothel) prostitution. Following legalization of prostitution in Victoria, Australia, although the number of legal brothels doubled, the greatest expansion was in illegal prostitu- tion. In 1 year (1999), there was a 300% growth of illegal brothels (Sullivan & Jeffreys, 2001).
It is an error to assume that women in prostitution sign up for prostitution in one location and stay there. In fact, they move between different kinds of prostitution, depending on the loca- tion of johns, the level of police harassment, and where the most money can be made (e.g., near military bases or during political or business conventions). Kramer (2003) found that 59% of 119 U.S. respondents had been in one or more types of indoor prostitution (such as strip club, massage parlor, escort prostitution) in addi- tion to street prostitution. Thirty-three percent of Kramer’s respondents had been prostituted indoors for the longest period of time, while 66% were involved in street prostitution for the lon- gest time. In similar findings, Farley (2003a) found that 46 NZ interviewees had been in many different kinds of prostitution, including escort, strip club, phone sex, Internet prostitution, peep show, bar prostitution, street prostitution, brothel prostitution, and prostitution associated with a military base. Twenty-two per- cent of these interviewees had been domestically trafficked from one region of NZ to another, and 6% had been trafficked from another country into NZ (Farley, 2003a).