Farley / HARMS OF PROSTITUTION
of human design. PTSD is normative among prostituted women. Farley et al. (2003) found a PTSD prevalence rate of 68% among those in prostitution in nine countries. This rate was comparable to the rates of PTSD among battered women seeking shelter (45%, Housekamp & Foy, 1991; 84%, Kemp, Rawlings, & Green, 1991), rape survivors (70%, Bownes, O’Gorman, & Sayers, 1991), and survivors of state-sponsored torture (51%, Ramsay, Gorst- Unsworth, & Turner, 1993). Illustrating a severe symptom of PTSD, one prostitution survivor said, “For the first few months I worked [in prostitution] I had a lot of nightmares involving mass numbers of penises” (Williams, 1991, p. 75). Many years after escaping prostitution, an Okinawan woman who was purchased by U.S. military personnel during the Vietnam War became agi- tated and had flashbacks of sexual assaults on the 15th and the 30th of each month—those days that were U.S. military paydays (Sturdevant & Stoltzfus, 1992). A third survivor described an altered consciousness of time that may be understood as a symp- tom of PTSD: “When you are a prostitute, you do not think of tomorrow, you just think of now” (Karim et al., 1995, p. 1523).
PROSTITUTION CAUSES OTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL HARM, IN ADDITION TO PTSD
Description of the psychological harm of prostitution some- times comes from its advocates. For example, the NZPC wrote in an unpublished flyer that people in prostitution know they should take a break from prostitution “when every client makes your skin crawl, when your jaw aches from clenching your teeth to prevent yourself spitting in the bastard’s face . . . [or] when you can’t stand what you see when you look in the mirror” (NZPC flyer by Michelle, circa 1994).
Most women who have been in prostitution for any length of time experience sexual dysfunction with their chosen partners. Feelings are disconnected from sexual acts. It becomes nearly impossible to view partners as anything but johns. Funari (1997) worked in a mirror-walled booth, naked. In this type of prostitu- tion, there is no physical contact between prostitute and john, yet it still adversely affected her view of her self, her sexuality, and her attitude toward men. Athick glass wall separated Funari from