VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN / October 2004
years. Their concern was the loss of anonymity that exists in legal prostitution. Once officially registered as prostitutes, Dutch women feared that this designation would pursue them for the rest of their lives. Despite the fact that if officially registered as prostitutes they would accrue pension funds, the women still pre- ferred anonymity (Schippers, 2002). They wanted to leave prosti- tution as quickly as possible with no legal record of having been in prostitution (Daley, 2001). Similarly, despite attempts to unionize women in Germany’s $16.5 billion legal prostitution industry, the women not only avoided unions, they avoided registering with the government and they continued to engage in illegal prostitu- tion in part because they felt that the remote areas where prostitu- tion is zoned put them at increased, not decreased, risk of physical danger (Taubitz, 2004).
VIOLENCE IS PERVASIVE IN LEGAL AS WELL AS ILLEGAL PROSTITUTION
It is a cruel lie to suggest that decriminalization or legalization will protect anyone in prostitution. There is much evidence that whatever its legal status, prostitution causes great harm to women. The following sections summarize some of the many studies that now document the physical and emotional harm caused by prostitution.
In the past two decades, a number of authors have documented or analyzed the sexual and physical violence that is the normative experience for women in prostitution, including Baldwin (1993, 1999); Barry (1979, 1995); Boyer, Chapman, and Marshall (1993); Dworkin (1981, 1997, 2000); Farley, Baral, Kiremire, and Sezgin
; Giobbe (1991, 1993); Hoigard and Finstad (1986); Hughes
; Hunter (1994); Hynes and Raymond (2002); Jeffreys
; Karim, Karim, Soldan, and Zondi (1995); Leidholdt (1993);
MacKinnon (1993, 1997, 2001); McKeganey and Barnard (1996); Miller (1995); Silbert and Pines (1982a, 1982b); Silbert, Pines, and Lynch (1982); Valera, Sawyer, and Schiraldi (2001); Vanwesenbeeck (1994); and Weisberg (1985).
Sexual violence and physical assault are the norm for women in all types of prostitution. Nemoto, Operario, Takenaka, Iwamoto,