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NIPPLE DISCHARGE

  • 5% OF REFERRALS TO BREAST CLINIC

  • 5% IS DUE TO MALIGNANCY

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PATHOLOGICAL

  • WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANT DISCHARGE?

  • INVESTIGATIONS

    • CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AS FOR BREAST LUMPS

    • CYTOLOGY AND OCCULT BLOOD TEST IS NOT SENSITIVE (less than 10% with bloody discharge have an underlying malignancy) …Simmons Ann Surg Oncol 2003

    • MAMMOGRAPHY (sensitivity can be low as 57%) / USS

    • DUCTOSCOPY AND LARVAGE (yields 100 times more cells than simple cytology)

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