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can assist faculty and students both with the skills, concepts and attitudes needed to become more learning-centered.  More information with a wealth of strategies for active, cooperative and collaborative learning can be found in web sites listed at the end of this section.  

Bloom’s Taxonomy2

Benjamin Bloom and others proposed over 40 years ago three hierarchical learning domains: cognitive, affective and psychomotor.  The taxonomy allows linking of assigned work to different developmental levels of learning.  The taxonomy also helps instruction by focusing on what level of learning is intended to be addressed or achieved by students.

The following version of Bloom’s taxonomy is from Businessball.com.  This version of Bloom’s was selected because it is inclusive (cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains) and provides examples of evidence to be measured.  Bloom’s taxonomy is useful in developing student, program and institutional student learning outcomes and administrative and student services objectives.  Bloom’s is also a key resource for developing and/or improving course outlines and course syllabi.

Generally, the higher level you achieve in Bloom’s taxonomy (analysis, synthesis and evaluation) the higher level of learning and achievement will occur.

cognitive domain


category or 'level'

behavior descriptions

examples of activity to be trained, or demonstration and evidence to be measured

'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level)



recall or recognize information

multiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedure

arrange, define, describe, label, list, memorize, recognize, relate, reproduce, select, state



understand meaning, re-state data in one's own words, interpret, extrapolate, translate

explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to given problem, create examples or metaphors

explain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarize, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorize, paraphrase, reference, example

2 This version of Bloom’s Taxonomy is found on Businessballs web site http://www.businessballs.com/.

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