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Expert-systems approach to rubric design – Faculty sort student work into categories, then determine characteristics that distinguish between categories to develop the rubric.

First-year experience programs – Freshman programs generally designed to help retain students through focusing on the development of engagement, academic skills, and awareness of campus support services.

Focus group – Planned discussion among groups of participants who are asked a series of carefully constructed questions about their beliefs, attitudes, and experiences.

Formative assessment – Assessment designed to give feedback to improve what is being assessed, or assessment of students at an intermediate stage of learning.

Formative validity – How well an assessment procedure provides information that is useful for improving what is being assessed.

Gateway course – A course that blocks students’ progress because they are unable to pass it.

Generalize results – Results that accurately represent the population that was sampled.

Goals – General statements about knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values expected in graduates.

Great books – A model for helping students develop through reading, reflecting on, and discussing classic books.

Halo effect – A problem that occurs when judgments are influenced by each other.

Holistic rubric – A rubric that involves one global, holistic judgment.

Impact – Assessment results in appropriate changes to improve what is being assessed.

Indirect measure – Students (or others) report opinions.

Informed consent – Participants agree to participate in assessment projects based on knowing the purpose of the project, the expected use of the data, the rights to not participate and to discontinue participation, and if data will be anonymous or confidential.

Institutional effectiveness – How well an institution promotes its mission.

Institutional-level assessment – The general education program is assessed at the institution-wide level, usually in upper-division courses in the majors.

Intentional learning – Exhibited by students who are engaged, purposeful, and self-directive in their learning.

Intentional teaching – Designing leaning experiences to help students develop mastery of specific learning outcomes.

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